Table 4

Univariate metaregression results

All-cause mortality
p Value
All hospitalisations
p Value
p Value
All HRQoL outcomes
p Value
Type of rehabilitation (exercise only vs comprehensive)0.760.770.230.28
Type of exercise (aerobic training alone vs aerobic plus resistance training)0.740.560.280.54
Exercise dose (number of weeks×number of sessions/week×average duration of session in hours)0.150.800.150.28
Exercise setting (hospital only, home only, both hospital and home)
Single versus multicentre0.940.700.140.01
Publication date0.540.540.460.60
Risk of bias*0.400.570.040.08
  • *‘Low’ risk of bias trial: absence of bias in >5 out 8 of risk of bias items vs ‘high’ risk of trial: absence of bias in <5 out 8 items.

  • HRQoL, health-related quality of life; MLWHF, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire.