Table 2

Summary of most relevant studies of frailty in cardiovascular disease

AuthorsStudy cohort and sizeFrailty criteriaFindings
Chin et al 51Age 69–89, n=450Inactivity combined with low energy intake, weight loss or low body mass index62% of frail patients had coexisting cardiovascular disease compared with 28% of the ‘non-frail’
Newman et al 23Community dwelling older adults, n=47353/5 of: self-reported weight loss, low grip strength, low energy, slow gait speed, and low physical activityThreefold increase in frailty in patients with cardiovascular disease
Klein et al 52Population based study of mid-western adults, n=2515Gait speed, handgrip strength, peak respiratory flow rate, ability to stand from a sitting position without using arms, and corrected visual acuityIncrease in frailty score by 1/5 was associated with a 35% increase in the presence of cardiovascular disease
Woods et al 25Women aged 65–79, n=40 657Self-reported muscle weakness/impaired walking, exhaustion, low physical activity, and unintended weight lossBaseline frailty independently predicted risk of death (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.48 to 1.97)
Mcnallan et al 27Heart failure, n=4483 or more of the following: unintentional weight loss, exhaustion, weak grip strength, and slowness and low physical activityFrailty was associated with a 92% increased risk of emergency department visits and 65% increased risk of hospitalisation
Polidoro et al 28Patients with AF, n=140Standard score of accumulated deficitsIncreased number of frail patients in AF cohort (88.6% vs 67.1%, p=0.004)
Matsuzawa et al 12Patients with NSTEMI and >75 years old, n=472Gait speedGait speed was a significant independent predictor of cardiovascular events
Sunderman et al 53CABG, valve surgery or TAVI, n=400CAF scoreSignificant correlation between frailty score and 30-day mortality
Schoenenberger et al 39TAVI, n=106Frailty indexFrailty strongly predicted functional decline after TAVI
Singh et al 46>65 years undergoing PCI, n=628Fried frailty scaleFrailty was associated with mortality/MI at 3 years (HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.52 to 4.50)
  • AF, atrial fibrillation; CAF, Comprehensive Assessment of Frailty; CABG, coronary artery bypass graft; MI, myocardial infarction; NSTEMI, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention; TAVI, transcatheter aortic valve implantation.