Article Text

Original research
Coronary artery disease in patients hospitalised with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection
  1. Marco Loffi1,
  2. Raffaele Piccolo2,
  3. Valentina Regazzoni1,
  4. Giuseppe Di Tano1,
  5. Luigi Moschini1,
  6. Debora Robba1,
  7. Filippo Quinzani1,
  8. Giovanni Esposito3,
  9. Anna Franzone2 and
  10. Gian Battista Danzi1
  1. 1Division of Cardiology, Hospital of Cremona, Cremona, Italy
  2. 2University of Naples Federico II Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Napoli, Campania, Italy
  3. 3Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, University of Naples Federico II Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Napoli, Campania, Italy
  1. Correspondence to Dr Marco Loffi; loffi.marco{at}


Objective Among patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), coronary artery disease (CAD) has been identified as a high-risk condition. We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes and mortality among patients with COVID-19 according to CAD status.

Methods We retrospectively analysed data from patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Cremona Hospital (Lombardy region, Italy) between February and March 2020. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. CAD was defined as a history of prior myocardial infarction (MI), prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or CAD that was being medically treated.

Results Of 1252 consecutive patients with COVID-19, 124 (9.9%) had concomitant CAD. Patients with CAD were older and had a higher prevalence of comorbidities compared with those without CAD. Although patients with CAD had a higher risk of all-cause mortality than patients without CAD (HR 3.01, 95% CI 2.27 to 3.99), this difference was no longer significant in the adjusted model (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.63). Results were consistent among patients with prior MI (adjusted HR (aHR) 0.87, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.41), prior PCI (aHR 1.10, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.62), prior CABG (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.82), or CAD medically treated (aHR 0.84, 95% CI 0.29 to 2.44). Multivariable analysis showed that age (aHR per 5 year increase 1.62, 95% CI 1.53 to 1.72) and female sex (aHR 0.63, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.82) were the only two independent correlates of mortality.

Conclusion Patients with COVID-19 and CAD have an exceedingly higher risk of mortality, which is mainly attributable to the burden of comorbidities rather than to a direct effect of CAD per se.

  • coronary artery disease
  • atherosclerosis
  • risk stratification

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  • ML and RP contributed equally.

  • Contributors Conception or design of the work: ML, RP, VR, GDT, GBD. Data collection: ML, VR, DR, LM. Data analysis and interpretation: ML, RP, AF. Drafting the article: RP, ML. Critical revision of the article: RP, AF, GBD, GE. Final approval of the version to be published: GBD, GE.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.

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