Objective Among patients with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), coronary artery disease (CAD) has been identified as a high-risk condition. We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes and mortality among patients with COVID-19 according to CAD status.
Methods We retrospectively analysed data from patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Cremona Hospital (Lombardy region, Italy) between February and March 2020. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. CAD was defined as a history of prior myocardial infarction (MI), prior percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or CAD that was being medically treated.
Results Of 1252 consecutive patients with COVID-19, 124 (9.9%) had concomitant CAD. Patients with CAD were older and had a higher prevalence of comorbidities compared with those without CAD. Although patients with CAD had a higher risk of all-cause mortality than patients without CAD (HR 3.01, 95% CI 2.27 to 3.99), this difference was no longer significant in the adjusted model (HR 1.14, 95% CI 0.79 to 1.63). Results were consistent among patients with prior MI (adjusted HR (aHR) 0.87, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.41), prior PCI (aHR 1.10, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.62), prior CABG (aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.82), or CAD medically treated (aHR 0.84, 95% CI 0.29 to 2.44). Multivariable analysis showed that age (aHR per 5 year increase 1.62, 95% CI 1.53 to 1.72) and female sex (aHR 0.63, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.82) were the only two independent correlates of mortality.
Conclusion Patients with COVID-19 and CAD have an exceedingly higher risk of mortality, which is mainly attributable to the burden of comorbidities rather than to a direct effect of CAD per se.
- coronary artery disease
- risk stratification
This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
ML and RP contributed equally.
Contributors Conception or design of the work: ML, RP, VR, GDT, GBD. Data collection: ML, VR, DR, LM. Data analysis and interpretation: ML, RP, AF. Drafting the article: RP, ML. Critical revision of the article: RP, AF, GBD, GE. Final approval of the version to be published: GBD, GE.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.