Objective Morbidity and mortality due to heart failure (HF) as a complication of myocardial infarction (MI) is high, and remains among the leading causes of death and hospitalisation. This study investigated the association between family history of MI with or without HF, and the risk of developing HF after first MI.
Methods Through nationwide registries, we identified all individuals aged 18–50 years hospitalised with first MI from 1997 to 2016 in Denmark. We identified 13 810 patients with MI, and the cohort was followed until HF diagnosis, second MI, 3 years after index MI, emigration, death or the end of 2016, whichever occurred first. HRs were estimated by Cox hazard regression models adjusted for sex, age, calendar year and comorbidities (reference: patients with no family history of MI).
Results After adjustment, we observed an increased risk of MI-induced HF for those having a sibling with MI with HF (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.02 to 4.12). Those having a sibling with MI without HF also had a significant, but lower increased risk of HF (HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.84). Parental history of MI with or without HF was not associated with HF.
Conclusion In this nationwide cohort, sibling history of MI with or without HF was associated with increased risk of HF after first MI, while a parental family history was not, suggesting that shared environmental factors may predominate in the determination of risk for developing HF.
- myocardial ischaemia and infarction (IHD)
- heart failure
- family history
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CT-P, GG and JT-H are joint senior authors.
CT-P, GG and JT-H contributed equally.
Contributors CG performed the analysis and drafted the manuscript. RS verified the analytical methods. LO, RJ, CB, CT-P, GG and JT-H were involved in planning and supervised the work. SR, LK and TE aided in interpreting the results and worked on the manuscript. All authors discussed the results, provided critical feedback and commented on the manuscript.
Funding This work was supported by the Novo Nordisk Foundation, and CG was funded by the University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (ref. number: 2007-58-0015/GEH-2014–014 and I-suite number: 02732). In Denmark, ethical approval is not required for retrospective register-based studies.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.
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