Neuroendocrine neoplasms arise from the gastrointestinal tract and can lead to carcinoid syndrome. Carcinoid heart disease affects more than half of these patients and is the initial presentation of carcinoid syndrome in up to 20 % of patients. Carcinoid heart disease typically leads to valve dysfunction, but in rare instances, carcinoid tumours can also metastasise to the endocardium and myocardium. Cardiovascular imaging plays an integral role in the diagnosis and prognosis of carcinoid heart disease. The use of multimodality imaging techniques including echocardiography, cardiac MRI, cardiovascular CT and positron emission tomography have allowed for a more comprehensive assessment of carcinoid heart disease. In this review, we discuss the features of carcinoid heart disease observed on multimodality imaging, indications for obtaining imaging studies and their role in carcinoid heart disease management.
- tricuspid valve disease
- cardiac remodelling
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Contributors AMA and SH contributed to the planning, conducting, analysis, revision and reporting of the work described. TD, DB, CAI, JB, PYK, NLP, SY and GG engaged in conducting, analysis, revision and reporting of the work described.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplementary information.
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