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Review
Effectiveness of pharmacist’s intervention in the management of cardiovascular diseases
  1. Stefano Omboni and
  2. Marina Caserini
  1. Department of Clinical Research Unit, Italian Institute of Telemedicine, Solbiate Arno, Italy
  1. Correspondence to Dr Stefano Omboni; stefano.omboni{at}iitelemed.org

Abstract

The pharmacist may play a relevant role in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases, mainly through patient education and counselling, drug safety management, medication review, monitoring and reconciliation, detection and control of specific cardiovascular risk factors (eg, blood pressure, blood glucose, serum lipids) and clinical outcomes. Systematic reviews of randomised controlled and observational studies have documented an improved control of hypertension, dyslipidaemia or diabetes, smoking cessation and reduced hospitalisation in patients with heart failure, following a pharmacist’s intervention. Limited proof for effectiveness is available for humanistic (patient satisfaction, adherence and knowledge) and economic outcomes. A multidisciplinary approach, including medical input plus a pharmacist, specialist nurse or both, and a greater involvement of community rather than hospital pharmacists, seems to represent the most efficient and modern healthcare delivery model. However, further well-designed research is demanded in order to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the impact of pharmacist’s interventions on cardiovascular disease and to identify specific areas of impact of collaborative practice. Such research should particularly focus on the demonstration of a sensitivity to community pharmacist’s intervention. Since pharmacy services are easily accessible and widely distributed in the community setting, a maximum benefit should be expected from interventions provided in this context.

  • hypertension
  • coronary artery disease
  • heart failure
  • pharmacist
  • diabetes

This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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Footnotes

  • Contributors SO made the search of the literature and wrote the manuscript. MC critically revised the draft manuscript before its finalisation.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data sharing statement No additional data are available.

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