Table 1

Baseline clinical characteristics in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) according to the presence of periodontitis

VariablesPeriodontitis group
(n=47)
Non-periodontitis group
(n=180)
P values
 Age (years)71.1±8.756.7±9.4<0.001
 Gender (male, %)27 (61.4)129 (72.5)0.197
 PeAF (%)11 (25.0)59 (32.3)0.043
 DM (%)12 (27.3)26 (14.5)0.071
 HTN (%)28 (65.1)98 (54.7)0.235
 CHF (%)5 (10.6)19 (10.6)1.000
 CVA (%)3 (1.7)3 (6.8)0.093
 CHADS2 1.3±0.5.1.4±0.40.789
 CHA2DS2-VASc1.8±1.51.8±0.70.845
 HAS-BLED score2.9±1.61.5±0.5<0.001
 COPD (%)1 (2.3)0 (0)0.197
 Alcohol (%)6 (14.0)48 (26.8)0.112
 Smoking (%)5 (11.6)30 (16.8)0.491
Medication
 Antiarrhythmics (%)
  Amiodarone (%)2 (4.0)6 (3.5)1.000
  Propafenone (%)6 (12.7)25 (14.0)0.450
  Flecainide (%)7 (1.5)27 (1.5)1.000
 Digoxin (%)2 (4.3)11 (6.1)1.000
 Beta-blocker (%)11 (23.2)43 (24.0)0.419
 CCB (%)13 (28.8)44 (24.5)0.365
 ARB and ACEi (%)12 (25.5)42 (23.5)0.407
 Statins (%)0 (0)0 (0)1.000
 Aspirin (%)4 (8.5)64 (35.6)<0.001
 VKA12 (25.5)101 (56.1)<0.001
Laboratory findings
 WBC (103/μL)8.7 ± 3.56.6 ± 2.8< 0.001
 NLR7.8 ± 6.52.8 ± 2.20.001
 Creatinine (mg/dL)1.1 ± 1.00.9 ± 0.70.113
 hsCRP (mg/dL)1.6 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.40.048
Echo parameters
 LVEF (%)62.0 ± 9.763.8 ± 8.30.203
 LVIDs (mm)30.6 ± 5.932.0 ± 5.60.151
 LVIDd (mm)45.6 ± 9.746.3 ± 5.90.245
 IVSD (mm)11.7 ± 2.811.2 ± 1.80.127
 LVPWD (mm)10.4 ± 2.310.2 ± 1.50.441
 LAVi (mL/m2)44.2 ± 8.836.0 ± 13.1< 0.001
 E velocity (cm/s)0.9 ± 0.40.8 ± 0.20.004
 A velocity (cm/s)0.8 ± 0.20.6 ± 0.2< 0.001
 E/A1.0 ± 0.71.4 ± 0.70.016
 E’0.05 ± 0.20.1 ± 0.10.001
 A′0.1 ± 0.020.1 ± 0.020.090
 E/E′13.8 ± 6.79.8 ± 4.8< 0.001
  • Values are mean±SD (range).

  • A, peak velocity of the late filling wave due to atrial contraction; A’, late diastolic mitral annulus velocity; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; CCB, calcium channel blocker; CHF, congestive heart failure; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRF, chronic renal failure; CVA, cerebrovascular accident; DM, diabetes mellitus; E, the peak mitral flow velocity of the early rapid filling wave; E’, early diastolic mitral annulus velocity; HTN, hypertension; hsCRP, high-sensitive C-reactive protein; IVSd, interventricular septal diameter; LAVi, left atrial volume index; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVIDs, left ventricular systolic diameter; LVIDd, left ventricular diastolic diameter; NLR, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio; PeAF, persistent atrial fibrillation; VKA, vitamin K antagonist; WBC, white blood cell count.