Table 1

Patient characteristics

VariableTotal (N=57)Left ventricular dysfunctionP value
No (n=17)Yes (n=40)
Race
 European American48 (84.2%)17 (100%)31 (77.5%)0.046
 African–American5 (9.4%)0 (0%)5 (12.5%)0.308
 Hispanic1 (1.8%)0 (0%)1 (2.5%)1.000
 Asian2 (3.5%)0 (0%)2 (5%)1.000
 Unknown1 (1.8%)0 (0%)1 (2.5%)1.000
Age at first visit, years18.1±6.717.8±6.418.2±6.90.839
Age at last visit, years25.5±7. 124.9±7.125.8±7.10.663
Follow-up, years7.1±2.87.4±2.77.0±2.80.620
Respiratory support50 (87.7%)14 (82.4%)36 (90.0%)*0.415
Medications
 ACEI or ARB51 (89.5%)12 (70.6%)39 (97.5%)†0.007
 Beta-blocker33 (57.9%)6 (35.3%)27 (67.5%)0.039
 Digoxin15 (26.3%)1 (5.9%)14 (35.0%)0.025
 Diuretics18 (31.6%)2 (11.8%)16 (40.0%)0.060
 Any steroid15 (26.3%)6 (35.3%)9 (22.5%)0.341
 Steroids >2 years10 (17.5%)4 (23.5%)‡6 (15.0%)‡0.464
 No medication0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)
  • *Invasive or non-invasive support indicated in 38 patients but refused by 2 patients.

  • †Lisinopril 11±5.5 mg daily.

  • ‡Prednisone 20 mg daily.

  • ACEI, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker.