Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the SAFETY cohort according to randomisation group and cognitive status

All
(n=260)
Standard management
(n=132)
P valueHome-based intervention
(n=128)
P value
MCI
(n=89)
No MCI
(n=43)
MCI
(n=80)
No MCI
(n=48)
Sociodemographic profile
 Mean age (years)72±1174±1068±130.00873±1069±110.029
 Male, n (%)137 (52.7)46 (51.7)25 (58.1)0.57743 (53.8)23 (47.9)0.585
 Living alone, n (%)110 (42.3)37 (41.6)15 (34.9)0.56935 (43.8)23 (47.9)0.715
 Tertiary level education, n (%)*83 (32.3)29 (33.0)14 (33.3)1.00019 (24.1)21 (43.8)0.030
AF-specific profile
 Persistent AF, n (%)234 (90.0)82 (92.1)39 (90.7)0.74871 (88.8)42 (87.5)1.000
 Permanent AF, n (%)26 (10.0)7 (7.9)4 (9.3)0.7489 (11.3)6 (12.5)1.000
 Mean CHA2DS2-VASc score†3.6±1.84.0±1.62.8±1.8<0.0013.9±1.83.1±1.50.013
 Asymptomatic AF, n (%)41 (15.8)12 (13.5)7 (16.3)0.79210 (12.5)12 (25.0)0.091
 Rate control, n (%)177 (68.1)61 (68.5)26 (60.5)0.43461 (76.3)29 (60.4)0.073
 Rhythm control, n (%)83 (31.9)28 (31.5)17 (39.5)0.43419 (23.8)19 (39.6)0.073
Risk factor profile
 Current smoker, n (%)‡36 (14.0)13 (14.6)7 (16.7)0.79711 (13.9)5 (10.4)0.784
 ‘High risk’ alcohol intake, n (%)§¶43 (17.2)15 (17.0)6 (14.6)0.80314 (18.7)8 (17.4)1.000
 Moderate exercise, n (%)**††121 (46.7)42 (47.2)21 (48.8)1.00034 (43.0)24 (50.0)0.468
 Mean heart rate (bpm)98±3475±1573±150.61774±1574±210.833
 Systolic BP (mm Hg)126±18126±19124±150.659128±19124±190.264
 Diastolic BP (mm Hg)70±1270±1271±100.62471±1369±120.374
 Mean total serum cholesterol (mmol/L)4.2±1.13.9±1.04.6±1.20.0074.2±1.14.1±1.20.589
 Mean body mass index (kg/m2)29.6±6.728.6±5.430.7±7.90.13129.7±7.529.9±6.30.873
Comorbidity profile
 Hypertension, n (%)188 (72.3)66 (74.2)25 (58.1)0.07362 (77.5)35 (72.9)0.671
 Coronary artery disease, n (%)84 (32.3)32 (36.0)11 (25.6)0.32229 (36.3)12 (25.0)0.241
 Type 2 diabetes, n (%)67 (25.8)22 (24.7)8 (18.6)0.51028 (35.0)9 (18.8)0.069
 Prior cerebrovascular event, n (%)41 (15.8)17 (19.1)4 (9.3)0.20614 (17.5)6 (12.5)0.616
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, n (%)46 (17.7)18 (20.2)8 (18.6)1.00014 (17.5)6 (12.5)0.616
 Vascular disease, n (%)15 (5.8)5 (5.6)2 (4.7)1.0008 (10.0)0 (0.0)0.025
 Depression, n (%)‡60 (23.3)21 (23.6)8 (18.6)0.65521 (26.9)10 (20.8)0.525
 Renal impairment (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.732), n (%)‡97 (37.6)39 (43.8)15 (34.9)0.35130 (37.5)13 (28.3)0.333
 Charlson Comorbidity Index5.0±2.55.6±2.54.3±2.60.0075.2±2.54.1±2.30.016
Treatment profile
 Beta blocker, n (%)130 (50.0)42 (47.2)20 (46.5)1.00045 (56.3)23 (47.9)0.368
 Digoxin, n (%)92 (35.4)34 (38.2)12 (27.9)0.33035 (43.8)11 (22.9)0.022
 Antiarrhythmic (%)69 (26.5)26 (29.2)12 (27.9)1.00015 (18.8)16 (33.3)0.088
 Diuretic, n (%)109 (41.9)36 (40.4)18 (41.9)1.00038 (47.5)17 (35.4)0.201
 Warfarin, n (%)141 (54.2)51 (57.3)24 (55.8)1.00040 (50.0)26 (54.2)0.716
 Aspirin, n (%)126 (48.5)45 (50.6)17 (39.5)0.26742 (52.5)22 (45.8)0.584
  • *Assessed in n=257 patients.

  • †CHA2DS2-VASc score definition: C=congestive heart failure/LV dysfunction (1 point), H=hypertension (even if treated; 1 point), A2=age ≥75 years (2 points), D=diabetes mellitus (1 point), S2=stroke/systemic embolism/transient ischaemic attack (2 points), V=vascular disease (1 point), A=age 65–74 years (1 point), Sc=sex category (female sex; 1 point), for the current research, the CHA2DS2-VASc score is scored from 0 to 8 (not 0–9 as is the norm) due to the exclusion of patients with chronic heart failure.

  • ‡Assessed in n=258 patients.

  • §Assessed in n=250 patients.

  • ¶Defined as consumption of >2 standard drinks on any occasion (on average).

  • **Meeting recommendation of >150 min per week of moderate exercise.

  • ††Assessed in n=259 patients.

  • AF, atrial fibrillation; BP, blood pressure; BMI, body mass index; bpm, beats per minute; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; MCI, mild cognitive impairment.