AuthorIntervention features
InterventionistDelivery methodTheoretical basisIntervention summary
Calvert et al 22 PharmacistIn person and phoneNot statedPredischarge counselling covering the importance and purpose of medications and barriers to adherence. Pocket medication card, cheat sheet (tips for remembering) and pillbox also provided. Regular follow-up with community pharmacist to discuss adherence-related issues.
Cossette et al 23 NurseIn person and phoneCS-SRMPredischarge counselling session: symptom and physical activity management, coherence around illness episode, concerns/worries. Postdischarge counselling sessions: disease management, concerns/worries and intentions about risk factor modification, problem solving.
Costa e Silva et al 24 MDT (included nurse)In person onlyNot statedTransdisciplinary outpatient care provided. Detailed treatment planning and follow-up with nurse, dietitian, endocrinologist and cardiologist. HCPs collaborated to reinforce lifestyle change and formulate a care plan.
Du et al 25 Physician (cardiologist)Phone onlyNot statedPhysician-led intensive telephone follow-up over 36 months. Patients provided with additional health education, disease-prevention suggestions and consultations on medication usage. Face-to-face visits were scheduled if necessary.
Giallauria et al 26 MDT (included nurse)In person onlyNot statedMonthly hospital meetings to discuss lifestyle change and engage in exercise training. Received a booklet about lifestyle change and promoting patients’ role in their healthcare. Encouraged family support throughout.
Giannuzzi et al 27 MDT (included nurse)In person onlyNot statedComprehensive cardiac rehab sessions that included exercise training and lifestyle and risk factor counselling. Encouraged family support throughout. Pharmacological treatments positively recommended to all patients. Received booklet to support lifestyle change and patient empowerment.
Gould28 NursePhone onlyCS-SRMPatients received written discharge materials, telephone follow-up by an expert, medication review materials, a medication pocket card and suggested websites.
Gujral et al 29 PharmacistIn person and phoneNCFTailored intervention targeting treatment beliefs. Beliefs and attitudes towards treatment elicited using repertory grid technique and then communicated to the community pharmacist. Information used to tailor their discussions with the patient during follow-up. Patient also reviewed monthly by community pharmacist to discuss adherence-related issues.
Ho et al 30 PharmacistIn person and phoneNot statedPharmacist-led postdischarge medication reconciliation and follow-up. Predischarge and postdischarge education sessions with pharmacist followed by automated educational voice messages. Use of pill boxes to organise medications. Increased communication between pharmacists and patients’ care team. Automated voice reminders to refill prescriptions.
Jalal et al 32 PharmacistIn person and phoneNot statedCommunity pharmacist-led motivational interview aimed at improving protective cardiovascular medicine taking. Consultations were delivered as part of the New Medicine Service or a Medication Usage Review (established UK NHS pharmacy services).
Jorstad et al 31 NurseIn person onlyNot statedOutpatient visits with a nurse: educational sessions targeted lifestyle change and risk factor management. Lifestyle and risk factors reviewed and patients received individual counselling. Medication adherence encouraged and reasons for discontinuation discussed.
Kotowycz et al 33 NurseIn person and phoneNot statedNurse-led patient education about the nature and management of their cardiac disease, with a focus on medications and facilitation of discharge planning.
Kronish et al 34 Other (problem-solving therapist)In person onlyNot statedPatients given a choice of either PST and/or pharmacotherapy. Weekly PST sessions were brief, problem focused and designed to augment self-efficacy and address psychosocial issues. Focus also on the initiation of pleasant activities. Patients given choice of different pharmacotherapy.
Lapointe et al 35 NursePhone onlyNot statedPatients received postdischarge letter and phone call concerning risk factor education and management. Clinical goals (lipid profile) set and patients received additional intervention from their physician if goals not met. Compliance assessment with pharmacist conducted at 12 and 18 months.
Miller et al 36 NurseIn person onlyTRAIntervention included an assessment (addressing attitudes, beliefs and intentions), problem identification (coping and societal adjustment) and developing a detailed health plan. Spouses were encouraged to participate.
Miller et al 37 NurseIn person onlyTRAIntervention included an assessment (addressing attitudes, beliefs and intentions), problem identification (coping and societal adjustment) and developing a detailed health plan. Spouses were encouraged to participate.
Miller et al 38 NurseIn person onlyTRAIntervention included an assessment (addressing attitudes, beliefs and intentions), problem identification (coping and societal adjustment) and developing a detailed health plan. Spouses were encouraged to participate.
Muniz  et al 39 PhysicianIn person onlyNot statedFocused on the patient-provided relationship. Discharge interview included a signed agreement of secondary prevention care plan and comprehensive written material about risk factor management. During a follow-up session, agreement reviewed and adapted if necessary.
Najafi  et al 40 Researcher (nurse)Phone onlyNot statedNurse-led follow-up telephone calls based on lifestyle counselling and education. Agreed behavioural objectives were reviewed and barriers were addressed through problem solving. Family participation was encouraged throughout.
Polack et al 41 PharmacistIn person onlyNot statedReceived predischarge pharmacist-led education around the benefits and risks of cardiac medications. Sessions included use of a patient education tool.
Polsook et al 42 Researcher (nurse)In person and phoneNot statedComprised a 4-week self-efficacy enhancement program that targeted patients’ motivation to be adherent, skills development and adherence self-monitoring.
Redfern et al 43 Other (physiotherapist)In person and phoneNot statedBased around risk factor assessment and goal setting. Patients chose their risk factor module and self-committed to a written action plan. Received a resource pack that included information leaflets. Follow-up sessions tested patients’ knowledge of their risk factors. Personal goals were also identified and positive. Risk-lowering behaviour recorded.
Redfern et al 44 Other (physiotherapist)In person and phoneNot statedBased around risk factor assessment and goal setting. Patients chose their risk factor module and self-committed to a written action plan. Received a resource pack that included information leaflets. Follow-up sessions tested patients’ knowledge of their risk factors. Personal goals were also identified and positive. Risk-lowering behaviour recorded.
Uysal and Ozcan45 Researcher (nurse)In person and phoneNot statedIndividualised education plans around lifestyle and risk factor management. Received access to a computer-based education along with brochures on lifestyle changes post-MI. Telephone counselling during follow-up addressing negative health behaviours, including treatment non-adherence.
Xavier et al 46 Other: community health workerIn person and phoneNot statedInvolved personalised counselling to help overcome barriers to adherence and lifestyle modification. Also received an adherence calendar to record medication taking and were asked to complete diaries, which included information about their medications. Family participation encouraged.
Sharma et al 47 Other: community health workerIn person and phoneNot statedInvolved personalised counselling to help overcome barriers to adherence and lifestyle modification. Also received an adherence calendar to record medication taking and were asked to complete diaries, which included information about their medications. Family participation encouraged.
Yorio et al 48 Nurse or pharmacistIn person onlyNot statedPostdischarge session with nurse or pharmacist. Session included full medication review and titration, risk factor counselling and discussion/referral to cardiac rehab and other HCPs (dietician and/or smoking cessation service).
  • ACS, acute coronary syndrome; CG, control group; CMAS, Composite Medication Adherence Score; CS-SRM, Common-Sense Model of Self-Regulation; HBS, Health Behaviour Scale; HCP, healthcare provider; IG, intervention group; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; MACE, major adverse cardiac events; MARS, Medication Adherence Report Scale; MDT, multidisciplinary team; MI, myocardial infarction; MMAS-4, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (4-item); MMAS-8, Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (8-item); MPR, medication possession ratio; MRA, medical regimen adherence; NCF, necessity concerns framework; NR, not reported; PDC, proportion of days covered; PST, problem-solving therapy; RCT, randomised controlled trial; TRA, theory of reasoned action.