Table 3

Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results for all inflammatory markers in the heart transplant recipients

Variables† n=14 HTxBaseline‡15 min30 min1 hour2 hoursTimeGroupTime×group
General inflammation
 CRP§MICT3.40±1.102.85±0.802.74±0.782.47±0.612.93±0.690.6010.3620.422
HIT4.10±0.963.9±0.943.58±0.883.46±0.83
 sTNFr1¶MICT3.08±0.253.17±0.163.39±0.203.09±0.212.91±0.17<0.001**0.6160.112
HIT3.38±0.243.56±0.202.76±0.162.74±0.18
Vascular inflammation
 vWF††MICT191±31117±17131±20138±23173±280.1750.0440.075*
HIT179±29239±48151±26151±23
 VCAMMICT511±36527±36486±29458±29468±260.0690.6720.422
HIT495±23507±32446±20460±25
Blood platelets
 PDGFMICT2.08±0.222.48±0.332.72±0.332.22±0.282.17±0.210.002**0.1620.690
HIT2.78±0.403.00±0.432.33±0.242.33±0.30
 sCD40LMICT1.07±0.151.29±0.181.26±0.181.04±0.151.06±0.17<0.001**0.0470.237
HIT1.41±0.201.46±0.211.20±0.181.14±0.16
 DKK-1MICT2.85±0.623.15±0.843.49±0.873.00±0.692.80±0.710.023**0.9950.130
HIT3.42±0.864.13±0.832.15±0.492.74±0.44
Angiogenesis
 VEGF-1¶MICT0.24±0.030.26±0.040.26±0.040.24±0.030.26±0.030.020**0.2750.077*
HIT0.29±0.040.29±0.040.24±0.030.24±0.03
 Ang-2¶MICT1.60±0.201.97±0.262.06±0.221.74±0.201.75±0.21<0.001**0.4150.095*
HIT1.97±0.262.06±0.221.75±0.201.64±0.21
 Tie-2MICT15.8±1.315.2±1.715.2±1.416.5±1.515.9±1.20.6320.3620.250
HIT16.2±1.616.3±1.616.3±1.515.4±1.7
 EndostatinMICT165±11166±12169±12163±9159±110.2060.1670.594
HIT184±14183±13170±13162±12
Cardiokine/myokine
 GDF-15MICT1.03±0.111.20±0.191.19±0.191.12±0.191.10±0.190.2060.0410.067*
HIT1.10±0.111.15±0.110.96±0.110.93±0.08
 ST2MICT20.3±2.020.0±1.920.5±2.120.1±1.820.7±2.20.4250.1120.228
HIT22.4±2.222.7±2.221.2±2.021.3±2.4
 SPARCMICT319±57486±60433±95297±64294±630.020**0.1220.745
HIT391±79491±84336±60328±56
  • *P value <0.10.

  • **Significant P values <0.05.

  • †All variables are measured in ng/mL serum if not otherwise stated.

  • ‡Results from 1 week ahead of first exercise session.

  • §Measured as μg/mL.

  • ¶Analysis of variance was performed with log-transformed variables.

  • ††Measured as per cent of pool.

  • Ang-2, angiopoietin-2; CRP, C reactive protein; DKK-1, Dickkopf-related protein 1; GDF-15, growth differentiation factor-15; HIT, high-intensity interval training; HTx, heart transplant recipients; MICT, moderate-intensity continuous training; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; sCD40L, soluble CD40 ligand; SPARC, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine; ST2, interleukin 1 receptor-like 1; sTNF1, soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor 1; Tie-2, tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin-like and EGF-like domains 2; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule; VEGF-1, vascular endothelial growth factor-1; vWF, von Willebrand factor.