Table 1

Baseline characteristics by study group (n=167)

Overt HCM (n=76)Preclinical HCM (n=50)Control (n=41)p for ANOVA
Clinical characteristics
Age, years27 (14)*†20 (11)17 (8)0.0002
Women, n (%)25 (33)*†28 (56)24 (56)0.007
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg115 (15)113 (13)113 (13)0.71
Diastolic blood pressure, mm Hg67 (9)68 (9)66 (9)0.55
Height, cm168 (18)*†162 (14)159 (18)0.012
Weight, kg72 (24)*†62 (18)58 (21)0.002
Body surface area, kg/m21.83 (0.42)*†1.67 (0.32)1.59 (0.39)0.003
NYHA class, n (%)
  Class I63 (83)50 (100)41 (100)
  Class II9 (12)0 (0)0 (0)
  Class III2 (3)0 (0)0 (0)
  Class IV2 (3)0 (0)0 (0)
Medication use, n (%)
  Beta-blocker25 (33)0 (0)0 (0)
  Calcium channel blocker9 (12)1 (2)0 (0)
  ACE inhibitor/ARB4 (5)0 (0)0 (0)
Genetic background, n (%)0.51
MYH726 (34)20 (40)
MYBPC339 (51)26 (52)
TNNT27 (9)1 (2)
Imaging characteristics
Left atrial diameter, cm3.7 (0.9)*†3.0 (0.5)*2.8 (0.5)<0.0001
LV end-diastolic dimension, z-score−2.6 (1.6)*†−1.8 (1.2)*−1.2 (1.3)<0.0001
LV end-systolic dimension, z-score−2.5 (2.0)*†−1.6 (1.2)*−0.7 (1.4)<0.0001
LV wall thickness, z-score10.0 (6.7)*†1.4 (1.3)1.1 (1.3)<0.0001
LV ejection fraction, %67 (10)*67 (8)*63 (8)0.048
E/A ratio1.6 (0.5)*†2.0 (0.6)2.0 (0.5)<0.0001
Deceleration time, ms214 (67)*†184 (43)182 (44)0.003
Mitral valve global e', cm/s11.3 (3.6)*†15.2 (1.9)*16.2 (2.3)<0.0001
Mitral valve global s', cm/s9.0 (2.0)†10.3 (1.9)9.6 (1.8)0.003
CMR LGE present, n (%)18 (46)
CMR LGE, % LV mass5.9 (7.6)NANA
Exercise testing
Duration, min11.6 (3.0)12.2 (2.2)11.9 (3.0)0.48
Peak MET, mL O2/kg/min13.1 (3.8)14.3 (2.6)14.3 (3.2)0.08
  • Values are mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated.

  • Cardiac MRI performed on a subset of n=41 overt HCM, n=32 preclinical HCM and n=23 controls, of whom LGE was assessed in n=39, 29 and 23 individuals.

  • *Indicates p<0.05 versus control.

  • †Indicates p<0.05 versus preclinical HCM.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; CMR, cardiac MRI; HCM, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; LGE, late gadolinium enhancement; LV, left ventricular; MET, metabolic equivalent; NA, not applicable; NYHA, New York Heart Association; MYH7, myosin heavy chain 7; MYBPC3, myosin binding protein C; TNNT2, troponin T2.