Table 1

Patient characteristics

No Dx
p Value*POTS
p Value*OH
p Value*p Value
Age, years28.1 (6.7)30.2 (6.3)28.2 (6.8)0.33526.6 (6.4) 0.030 28.2 (6.7)0.6320.053
Sex, % male32.638.541.720.818.2 0.011
BMI, kg/m2 23.7 (3.9)24.7 (4.9)24.0 (3.5)0.78522.8 (3.4)0.07423.9 (4.8)0.8520.076
Symptoms reported by the patients
Duration of symptoms, years, (median, (IQR))3 (9)4 (8)5 (10)0.6983 (9)0.9982.5 (5)0.8130.247
Total no of syncope (median, (IQR))5 (18)5 (22)5 (7)0.7345 (28)1.0009 (18)0.9790.266
Prodrome (nausea, perspiration, etc), %72.465.577.665.088.90.128
Palpitations, %39.151.732.831.766.7 0.017
Traumatic fall, %55.153.852.060.654.50.731
Dizziness on standing, % 0.003
  • Values displayed as mean (SD) if not otherwise stated.

  • *p Value for Tukey’s or Games-Howell post hoc test in relation to no Dx (reference group) for continuous variables.

  • †ANOVA or Welch test p value for continuous variables and Pearson's χ2 p value for dichotomous variables.

  • ANOVA, analysis of variance; no Dx, no diagnosis;  OH, orthostatic hypotension; POTS, postural tachycardia syndrome; VVS, vasovagal syncope. The use of medications in the study population was generally very low. Blood pressure-increasing medication was used in seven patients (one negative HUT, two VVS, three POTS, one OH). β-Blockers were used by two patients (both POTS); calcium antagonists was used in one patient (VVS) as were angiotensin receptor blockers (VVS), levothyroxine was used by two patients (POTS; OH) and anti-EP medications were used by four patients (two negative HUT, one POTS, one OH). Antidepressants in the form of selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors were used by 14 patients (3 negative HUT, 5 VVS, 2 POTS, 4 OH) and other antidepressants were used by two patients (both POTS). Symptomatic drugs including sedatives, analgetics and sleep agents were used in no more than five patients for each class of drugs. No patient used antidiabetic medication, platelet inhibitors, oral anticoagulants, diuretics, ACE-inhibitors, α-blockers, long-acting nitroglycerine, lipid-lowering drugs, digoxin, opiates, anti-Parkinson medication or cytostatics.