Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the US BAV and TAV IE and control populations

BAV with IE n=41BAV without IE n=1081TAV with IE n=371TAV without IE n=18 356p value BAV IE versus TAV IEp value BAV IE versus BAV no IEp value TAV IE versus TAV no IE
Demographics
Age, years
 <4016 (39%)297 (27%)63 (17%)3067 (17%)<0.0010.710.98
 40–4910 (24%)246 (23%)50 (13%)2272 (12%)
 50–595 (12%)199 (18%)63 (17%)3117 (17%)
 60–697 (17%)224 (21%)84 (23%)4313 (23%)
 70–792 (5%)76 (7%)76 (20%)3690 (20.%)
 >=801 (2%)39 (4%)35 (9%)1897 (10.%)
Gender (female)31 (76%)870 (80%)232 (63%)11 424 (62%)0.120.430.96
Race (Caucasian)36 (88%)1026 (95%)305 (82%)15 073 (82%)0.510.0631.0
Income decile
 0–41 (2%)55 (5%)36 (10%)1099 (6%)0.0580.0450.004
 5–712 (29%)158 (15%)66 (19%)2827 (16%)
 8–1027 (66%)845 (80%)251 (71%)13 583 (78%)
Elixhauser Score
 <=011 (27%)187 (17%)31 (8%)3742 (20%)0.0470.45<0.0001
 1–1013 (32%)389 (36%)95 (26%)5430 (30%)
 11–209 (22%)296 (27%)120 (32%)3823 (21%)
 >207 (17%)209 (19%)122 (33%)5361 (29%)
Diabetes2 (5%)125 (12%)45 (12%)2684 (15%)0.200.220.15
COPD7 (17%)219 (20%)97 (26%)6688 (36%)0.190.700.0001
Cancer4 (10%)135 (12%)45 (12%)4664 (25%)0.800.81<0.0001
Lymphoma2 (5%)35 (3%)13 (4%)960 (5%)1.000.400.91
Renal disease6 (15%)96 (9%)115 (31%)2850 (16%)0.030.27<0.0001
Liver disease5 (12%)123 (11%)76 (21%)3871 (21%)0.220.810.90
Obesity5 (12%)142 (13%)25 (7%)4199 (23%)0.190.080.02
Alcohol abuse3 (7%)58 (5%)31 (8%)1789 (10%)1.000.480.0008
Drug abuse10 (24%)61 (6%)75 (20%)1544 (8%)0.420.0001<0.0001
Prior cardiac status
Hypertension15 (37%)541 (50%)178 (48%)10 697 (58%)0.240.150.0002
Congestive heart failure18 (44%)404 (37%)204 (55%)3923 (21%)0.240.32<0.0001
Previous stroke10 (25%)549 (51%)61 (17%)3329 (18%)0.190.0020.49
Rheumatic heart disease3 (7%)41 (4%)30 (8%)1866 (10%)1.00.200.22
Arrhythmia20 (49%)603 (56%)218 (59%)8183 (45%)0.310.52<0.0001
Valve disease
Aortic valve endocarditis38 (93%)-127 (34%)-<0.0001--
Mitral valve endocarditis8 (20%)-200 (54%)-<0.0001--
Tricuspid valve endocarditis1 (2%)-87 (23%)-0.0005--
Pulmonary valve endocarditis0 (0%)-4 (1%)-1.0--
Vegetation present40 (98%)-367 (99%)-0.40--
Abscess present11 (27%)-15 (4%)-<0.0001--
Organism
Staphylococcus aureus 8 (20%)-169 (46%)-0.016 **--
Staphylococcus (coagulase-negative)2 (5%)-14 (4%)---
Streptoccus viridans 4 (10%)-7 (2%)---
Streptoccus mitis 4 (10%)-16 (4.%)---
Streptoccus mutans 3 (7%)-3 (1%)---
Streptoccus sanguinus 3 (7%)-9 (2%)---
Streptoccus species other or unclassified3 (7%)-42 (11%)---
Gemella species1 (2%)-3 (1%)---
Haemophilus parainfluenzae 1 (2%)-4 (1%)---
Enterococcus sp.3 (7%)-46 (12%)---
HACEK organism--2 (1%)---
Mixed flora or other species--18 (5%)---
Culture negative7 (17%)-35 (10%)---
Modified Duke criteria for IE
Major: imaging41 (100%)-371 (100%)-1.0--
Major: microbiology38 (91%)-365 (98%)-0.051--
Minor: intravenous drug use11 (26%)-79 (20.1%)-0.42--
Minor: heart disease41 (100%)-9 (2%)-<0.0001--
Minor: fever21 (50%)-260 (70%)-0.021--
Minor: implanted device0-29 (8%)-0.10--
Minor: end-stage renal disease2 (5%)-25 (7%)-1.0--
Minor: immunological3 (7%)-66 (17%)-0.12--
Outcomes*
Valve replacement
 1 year30/41 (73%)40/802 (5%)164/371 (44%)21/16,464 (0.02%)0.0005<0.0001<0.0001
 5 years32/39 (85%)89/522 (17%)155/332 (47%)141/12,895 (1%)0.0009<0.0001<0.0001
Survival
 1 year36/41 (88%)805/812 (99%)270/367 (74%)12,874/13,056 (99%)0.060.0001<0.0001
 5 years20/26 (77%)518/557 (93%)141/281 (50%)8,160/9,275 (88%)0.0130.011<0.0001
 10 years4/13 (31%)172/242 (71%)49/206 (24%)3,3332/5,371 (62%)0.520.013<0.0001
  • *After diagnosis of IE in the IE case, and the age-equivalent date in the non-IE control.

  • †Comparing patients with Staphylococcus aureus infection versus all other infections.

  • BAV, bicuspid aortic valve; COPD,Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; IE, infective endocarditis; TAV, tricuspid aortic valve; HACEK, Haemophilus, Aggregatibacter, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella, Kingella.